Alemnis Standard Assembly (ASA)

Alemnis pushes the frontiers of numerous nanomechanical testing methods with a high-precision nanoindenter assembly (the ASA) and a range of complementary accessories, consumables, and controllers.

Unique modular design:

The Alemnis Standard Assembly (ASA) is a modular indentation platform designed to be customized for your specific needs. Its unique modular design makes it the world’s most versatile, high performance and cost effective instrument and it is used in some of the most prestigious universities and research centers in the world. 

A major milestone in the scientific community:

It is based on years of experience in the design of scientific instruments and piezoelectric transducers conducted in joint projects between EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne) and Empa (Swiss Federal Laboratories of Material Science and Technology, Thun). A publication by the inventors was awarded the Bunshah Award 2004 of the American Vacuum Society. It is considered as a major milestone in the scientific community.

Unmatched versatility

Thanks to its unique modular design, the ASA can be used in a variety of configurations:

True displacement mode

The unique performances of ASA’s true displacement mode is the key to understanding:

  • Load drops
  • Compression artefacts
  • Strain rate jumps
  • Sudden load excursions in real time

Widest load range

Widest load range on the market: From µN up to 2.5 N

Environmental control options

The ASA enables the testing of materials in a vast array of environments with options including:

Domains

Thanks to its unmatched versatility, te ASA is the go-to instrument for researchers in many domains:

Read more about domains of application

Ease of use and Support

The ASA is modular, robust, easy to install and simple to use with its intuitive software. The Alemnis team has many years of experience in the surface mechanical properties testing field and are renowned for their close collaboration with clients, often resulting in unique developments and the pushing of limits to new levels. A guaranteed rapid response time and flexible approach make Alemnis your best choice for reaching and exceeding your testing objectives.

Applications

Alemnis Standard Assembly

Product Specifications

Main Components:

  • Displacement head: piezo actuated displacement head with integrated displacement sensor for closed loop operation. Maximum displacement 40 µm, displacement resolution < 1 nm;
  • Load sensor: max. force: 0.5 N, typically 4 µN RMS noise;
  • Sample versus indentation tip positioning: Piezoelectric XY+Z micro-positioning system for sample positioning and tip approach (26 mm range in X and Y, 26 mm range in Z), with integrated position sensors for closed loop operation (< 2 nm resolution);
  • 5 standard stubs;
  • all cables and connectors for in air operation.

For integration in SEM, additional modifications may be required, such as custom flanges, cabling, mounts and connectors. This is typically quoted on a case-by-case basis.

Contact us

Customers testimonials

Alemnis is the market leader both in the academic and industrial sectors. Its unmatched capabilities and unparalleled versatility as well as Alemnis superior support and customer service makes it a favorite among researchers around the world.

< Click on the institution name to read some of our customer testimonials.

Gaylord Guillonneau

“The Alemnis in-situ indenter is a robust and versatile device. We have used it extensively for micropillar compression and indentation on tribological transformed surfaces, at ambient temperature and at high temperature. The strong advantage of the device is that it is displacement controlled, allowing mechanical tests on fragile materials, without destroying the micropillar. It is also, with the Ultra High Strain Rate (UHSR) module, very rigid and allows us to measure the mechanical properties of our materials up to 10,000/s strain rate.”

G. Mohanty

[The ASA] is a versatile, modular, easy-to-use and, […] robust, […] performing any kind of mechanical tests. Its greatest strength, in comparison to other nanoindenters, is that it is inherently displacement controlled which makes it extremely easy to perform strain rate jump, stress relaxation and fracture tests. […] And special mention of the Alemnis team that is always available for support, stimulating discussions and collaborations.

P. Spätig

“The in-situ Alemnis indenter is a reliable, very flexible, and easy-to-use micro-mechanical test device. Thanks to the professionalism of the Alemnis team you get started with the instrument in no time. Support, direct discussion and help are the great assets of Alemnis.

Y. Chiu

“[…]  a true displacement controlled system enables us to study conveniently the mechanical response, under prescribed strain rates, of a range of structural engineering alloys from nickel-base alloys, new titanium alloys and steels developed by our industry partners. The continuous professional support from the Alemnis team has been greatly appreciated.

Gonzalo García Luna

“The ASA is an outstandingly versatile yet robust device for all types of micromechanical testing. [… ] Moreover, the excellent team of professionals behind the device is always available for support and well-informed discussions on potential applications. Without the Alemnis nanoindenter we simply could not undertake research of such high quality as we currently do.”

Siddhartha Pathak

The versatility of the Alemnis system is a big advantage for our experiments. […] Our 2018-19 senior design team was recently awarded the Second Prize in the 2019 ASM Foundation Design Competition for a micro-tensile grip design based on the Alemnis system.

J. Schwiedrzik

“The flexibility of the Alemnis system […] has allowed us to widen the scope of our research enormously. [It] has provided significant new data for this class of materials.”

Magnus Colliander

“[…] The excellent long term stability of the system allows us to perform spatially resolved diffraction with sub 100 nm resolution, and through the help and openness of Alemnis support it has been integrated into the beamline control system. The indenter is both robust and easy to set up […].”

Publications

Click on the tabs to see the publications that used the Alemnis Standard Assembly (ASA)

2019

H. S. Iyera, G. Mohanty, K. Stillera, J. Michler, M. Colliander, Microscale fracture of chromia scales, Materialia Vol. 8 (2019) 100465 doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2019.100465

2018

Ast, J., et al., Interplay of stresses, plasticity at crack tips and small sample dimensions revealed by in-situ microcantilever tests in tungsten. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2018. 710: p. 400-412.

Ast, J., et al., The brittle-ductile transition of tungsten single crystals at the micro-scale. Materials & Design, 2018. 152: p. 168-180.

Bhowmik, A., et al., Deformation behaviour of [001] oriented MgO using combined in-situ nano-indentation and micro-Laue diffraction. Acta Materialia, 2018. 145: p. 516-531.

Edwards, T.E.J., et al., Longitudinal twinning in a TiAl alloy at high temperature by in situ microcompression. Acta Materialia, 2018. 148: p. 202-215.

Fanicchia, F., et al., Residual stress and adhesion of thermal spray coatings: Microscopic view by solidification and crystallisation analysis in the epitaxial CoNiCrAlY single splat. Materials & Design, 2018. 153: p. 36-46.

Ferrand, H.L., F. Bouville, and A.R. Studart, Processing of dense bio-inspired ceramics with deliberate microtexture. arXiv preprint arXiv:1807.04378, 2018.

Jones, R., et al., Reduced partitioning of plastic strain for strong and yet ductile precipitate-strengthened alloys. Scientific reports, 2018. 8(1): p. 8698.

Knowles, A.J., et al., Data on a new beta titanium alloy system reinforced with superlattice intermetallic precipitates. Data in brief, 2018. 17: p. 863-869.

Lauener, C., et al., Fracture of Silicon: Influence of rate, positioning accuracy, FIB machining, and elevated temperatures on toughness measured by pillar indentation splitting. Materials & Design, 2018. 142: p. 340-349.

Liao, Z., et al., On the influence of gamma prime upon machining of advanced nickel based superalloy. CIRP Annals, 2018.

Schwiedrzik, J., et al., A new push‐pull sample design for microscale mode 1 fracture toughness measurements under uniaxial tension. Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, 2018. 41(5): p. 991-1001.

2017

Wehrs J, Deckarm MJ, Wheeler JM, Maeder X, Birringer R, Mischler S, et al. Elevated temperature, micro-compression transient plasticity tests on nanocrystalline Palladium-Gold: Probing activation parameters at the lower limit of crystallinity. Acta Materialia 2017.

Ast J, Polyakov M, Mohanty G, Michler J, Maeder X. Interplay of stresses, plasticity at crack tips and small sample dimensions revealed by in-situ microcantilever tests in tungsten. Ma-terials Science and Engineering: A 2017.

Ast J, Mohanty G, Guo Y, Michler J, Maeder X. In situ micromechanical testing of tungsten micro-cantilevers using HR-EBSD for the assessment of deformation evolution. Materials & Design 2017;117:265-6.

Best JP, Wehrs J, Maeder X, Zechner J, Wheeler JM, Schär T, et al. Reversible, high temperature softening of plasma-nitrided hot-working steel studied using in situ micro-pillar compression. Materials Science and Engineering: A 2017;680:433-6.

Viat A, Guillonneau G, Fouvry S, Kermouche G, Sao Joao S, Wehrs J, et al. Brittle to ductile transition of tribomaterial in relation to wear response at high temperatures. Wear 2017;392:60-8.

Schwiedrzik J, Ast J, Pethö L, Maeder X, Michler J. A new push‐pull sample design for microscale mode 1 fracture toughness measurements under uniaxial tension. Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures 2017

Ast, J., et al., In situ micromechanical testing of tungsten micro-cantilevers using HR-EBSD for the assessment of deformation evolution. Materials & Design, 2017. 117: p. 265-266.

Best, J.P., et al., Reversible, high temperature softening of plasma-nitrided hot-working steel studied using in situ micro-pillar compression. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2017. 680: p. 433-436.

Feilden, E., et al., Micromechanical strength of individual Al2O3 platelets. Scripta Materialia, 2017. 131: p. 55-58.

Keller, L.M., et al., Understanding anisotropic mechanical properties of shales at different length scales: In situ micropillar compression combined with finite element calculations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 2017. 122(8): p. 5945-5955.

Knowles, A.J., et al., A new beta titanium alloy system reinforced with superlattice intermetallic precipitates. Scripta Materialia, 2017. 140: p. 71-75.

Mastorakos, I.N., et al., The effect of size and composition on the strength and hardening of Cu–Ni/Nb nanoscale metallic composites. Journal of Materials Research, 2017. 32(13): p. 2542-2550.

Sernicola, G., et al., In situ stable crack growth at the micron scale. Nature communications, 2017. 8(1): p. 108.

Viat, A., et al., Brittle to ductile transition of tribomaterial in relation to wear response at high temperatures. Wear, 2017. 392: p. 60-68.

Wehrs, J., et al., Elevated temperature, micro-compression transient plasticity tests on nanocrystalline Palladium-Gold: probing activation parameters at the lower limit of crystallinity. Acta Materialia, 2017. 129: p. 124-137.

Xiao, Y., et al., Investigation of the deformation behavior of aluminum micropillars produced by focused ion beam machining using Ga and Xe ions. Scripta Materialia, 2017. 127: p. 191-194.

Zou, Y., et al., Nanocrystalline high-entropy alloys: a new paradigm in high-temperature strength and stability. Nano letters, 2017. 17(3): p. 1569-1574.

2016

Mohanty G, Wehrs J, Boyce BL, Taylor A, Hasegawa M, Philippe L, et al. Room temperature stress relaxation in nanocrystalline Ni measured by micropillar compression and miniature tension. Journal of Materials Research 2016; 31:1085-95.

Jun T-S, Zhang Z, Sernicola G, Dunne FP, Britton TB. Local strain rate sensitivity of single α phase within a dual-phase Ti alloy. Acta Materialia 2016;107:298-309.

Guo Y, Schwiedrzik J, Michler J, Maeder X. On the nucleation and growth of <1122> twin in commercial purity titanium: In situ investigation of the local stress field and dislocation density distribution. Acta Materialia 2016;120:292-301.

Gamcová J, Mohanty G, Michalik Š, Wehrs J, Bednarčík J, Krywka C, et al. Mapping strain fields induced in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses during in-situ nanoindentation by X-ray nanodiffraction. Applied Physics Letters 2016;108:031907.

Abad OT, Wheeler JM, Michler J, Schneider AS, Arzt E. Temperature-dependent size effects on the strength of Ta and W micropillars. Acta Materialia 2016;103:483-94.

Best JP, Zechner J, Wheeler JM, Schoeppner R, Morstein M, Michler J. Small-scale fracture toughness of ceramic thin films: the effects of specimen geometry, ion beam notching and high temperature on chromium nitride toughness evaluation. Philosophical Magazine 2016;96:3552-69.

Best JP, Zechner J, Shorubalko I, Oboňa JV, Wehrs J, Morstein M, et al. A comparison of three different notching ions for small-scale fracture toughness measurement. Scripta Materialia 2016;112:71-4.

Jaya BN, Wheeler JM, Wehrs J, Best JP, Soler R, Michler J, et al. Microscale Fracture Behavior of Single Crystal Silicon Beams at Elevated Temperatures. Nano Letters 2016;16:7597-603.

Abad, O.T., et al., Temperature-dependent size effects on the strength of Ta and W micropillars. Acta Materialia, 2016. 103: p. 483-494.

Best, J.P., et al., Small-scale fracture toughness of ceramic thin films: the effects of specimen geometry, ion beam notching and high temperature on chromium nitride toughness evaluation. Philosophical Magazine, 2016. 96(32-34): p. 3552-3569.

Chen, M., et al., High-Temperature In situ Deformation of GaAs Micro-pillars: Lithography Versus FIB Machining. JOM, 2016. 68(11): p. 2761-2767.

Edwards, T.E.J., et al., Deformation of lamellar TiAl alloys by longitudinal twinning. Scripta Materialia, 2016. 118: p. 46-50.

Guo, Y., et al., On the nucleation and growth of {112¯ 2} twin in commercial purity titanium: In situ investigation of the local stress field and dislocation density distribution. Acta Materialia, 2016. 120: p. 292-301.

Jaya, B.N., et al., Microscale fracture behavior of single crystal silicon beams at elevated temperatures. Nano letters, 2016. 16(12): p. 7597-7603.

Jun, T.-S., et al., Local deformation mechanisms of two-phase Ti alloy. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2016. 649: p. 39-47.

Jun, T.-S., et al., Local strain rate sensitivity of single α phase within a dual-phase Ti alloy. Acta Materialia, 2016. 107: p. 298-309.

Kermouche, G., et al., Perfectly plastic flow in silica glass. Acta Materialia, 2016. 114: p. 146-153.

Kolb, M., et al., Local mechanical properties of the (β0+ ω0) composite in multiphase titanium aluminides studied with nanoindentation at room and high temperatures. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2016. 665: p. 135-140.

Mohanty, G., et al., Room temperature stress relaxation in nanocrystalline Ni measured by micropillar compression and miniature tension. Journal of Materials Research, 2016. 31(8): p. 1085-1095.

Tumbajoy-Spinel, D., et al., Assessment of mechanical property gradients after impact-based surface treatment: application to pure α-iron. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2016. 667: p. 189-198.

Wheeler, J.M., et al., The effect of size on the strength of FCC metals at elevated temperatures: annealed copper. Philosophical Magazine, 2016. 96(32-34): p. 3379-3395.

Wheeler, J.M., et al., The plasticity of indium antimonide: Insights from variable temperature, strain rate jump micro-compression testing. Acta Materialia, 2016. 106: p. 283-289.

Zhang, Z., et al., Determination of Ti-6242 α and β slip properties using micro-pillar test and computational crystal plasticity. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 2016. 95: p. 393-410.

Zou, Y., et al., Bridging room-temperature and high-temperature plasticity in decagonal Al–Ni–Co quasicrystals by micro-thermomechanical testing. Philosophical Magazine, 2016. 96(32-34): p. 3356-3378.

2015

Mohanty G, Wheeler JM, Raghavan R, Wehrs J, Hasegawa M, Mischler S, et al. Elevated temperature, strain rate jump microcompression of nanocrystalline nickel. Philosophical Magazine 2015;95:1878-95.

Wehrs J, Mohanty G, Guillonneau G, Taylor AA, Maeder X, Frey D, et al. Comparison of In Situ Micromechanical Strain-Rate Sensitivity Measurement Techniques. JOM 2015; 67:1684-93.

Wheeler J, Armstrong D, Heinz W, Schwaiger R. High temperature nanoindentation: The state of the art and future challenges. Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science 2015;19:354-66.

Raghavan R, Wheeler J, Esqué-de los Ojos D, Thomas K, Almandoz E, Fuentes G, et al. Mechanical behavior of Cu/TiN multilayers at ambient and elevated temperatures: Stress-assisted diffusion of Cu. Materials Science and Engineering: A 2015;620:375-82.

2014

Soler R, Wheeler JM, Chang H-J, Segurado J, Michler J, Llorca J, et al. Understanding size effects on the strength of single crystals through high-temperature micropillar compression. Acta Materialia 2014;81:50-7.

Schwiedrzik J, Raghavan R, Bürki A, LeNader V, Wolfram U, Michler J, et al. In situ micropillar compression reveals superior strength and ductility but an absence of damage in lamellar bone. Nature materials 2014;13:740-7

2013

Wheeler J, Michler J. Elevated temperature, nano-mechanical testing in situ in the scanning electron microscope. Review of Scientific Instruments 2013;84:045103.

Rabier J, Montagne A, Wheeler J, Demenet J, Michler J, Ghisleni R. Silicon micropillars: high stress plasticity. Phys Status Solidi 2013;10:11-5

2012

Wheeler J, Brodard P, Michler J. Elevated temperature, in situ indentation with calibrated contact temperatures. Philosophical Magazine 2012;92:3128-41.

Wheeler J, Raghavan R, Michler J. Temperature invariant flow stress during microcompression of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass. Scripta Materialia 2012;67:125-8.

2011

Ghisleni R, Liu J, Raghavan R, Brodard P, Lugstein A, Wasmer K, et al. In situ micro-Raman compression: characterization of plasticity and fracture in GaAs. Philosophical Magazine 2011;91:1286-92.

Wheeler J, Raghavan R, Michler J. In situ SEM indentation of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass at elevated temperatures. Materials Science and Engineering: A 2011;528:8750-6.

2008

Wasmer K, Wermelinger T, Bidiville A, Spolenak R, Michler J. In situ compression tests on micron-sized silicon pillars by Raman microscopy—Stress measurements and deformation analysis. Journal of Materials Research 2008;23:3040-7.

2018

Ferrand, H.L., F. Bouville, and A.R. Studart, Processing of dense bio-inspired ceramics with deliberate microtexture. arXiv preprint arXiv:1807.04378, 2018.

2017

Schwiedrzik J, Taylor A, Casari D, Wolfram U, Zysset P, Michler J. Nanoscale deformation mechanisms and yield properties of hydrated bone extracellular matrix. Acta Biomaterialia 2017;60:302-14

Schwiedrzik, J., et al., Nanoscale deformation mechanisms and yield properties of hydrated bone extracellular matrix. Acta biomaterialia, 2017. 60: p. 302-314.

2016

Schwiedrzik J, Raghavan R, Rüggeberg M, Hansen S, Wehrs J, Adusumalli RB, et al. Identification of polymer matrix yield stress in the wood cell wall based on micropillar compression and micromechanical modelling. Philosophical Magazine 2016;96:3461-78.

2015

Lunt AJ, Mohanty G, Ying S, Dluhoš J, Sui T, Neo TK, et al. A comparative transmission elec-tron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and spatially resolved micropillar compression study of the yttria partially stabilised zirconia-porcelain interface in dental prosthesis. Thin Solid Films 2015;596:222-32.

Lunt AJ, Mohanty G, Neo TK, Michler J, Korsunsky AM. Microscale resolution fracture toughness profiling at the zirconia-porcelain interface in dental prostheses.  SPIE Micro+ Nano Materials, Devices, and Applications: International Society for Optics and Photonics; 2015. p. 96685S-S-11.

Lunt AJ, Mohanty G, Ying S, Dluhoš J, Sui T, Neo TK, et al. A comparative transmission elec-tron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and spatially resolved micropillar compression study of the yttria partially stabilised zirconia-porcelain interface in dental prosthesis. Thin Solid Films 2015;596:222-32.

2014

Schwiedrzik J, Raghavan R, Bürki A, LeNader V, Wolfram U, Michler J, et al. In situ micropillar compression reveals superior strength and ductility but an absence of damage in lamellar bone. Nature materials 2014;13:740-7

2018

de Jager, B., et al. On the Microstructure Size Effect in SLS-built 316L Stainless Steel Parts. in Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering. 2018.

2017

Hasegawa, M., et al., Electrodeposition of dilute Ni-W alloy with enhanced thermal stability: Accessing nanotwinned to nanocrystalline microstructures. Materials Today Communications, 2017. 12: p. 63-71.

Mieszala, M., et al., Micromechanics of amorphous metal/polymer hybrid structures with 3D cellular architectures: Size effects, buckling behavior, and energy absorption capability. Small, 2017. 13(8): p. 1602514.

2016

Mohanty G, Wehrs J, Boyce BL, Taylor A, Hasegawa M, Philippe L, et al. Room temperature stress relaxation in nanocrystalline Ni measured by micropillar compression and miniature tension. Journal of Materials Research 2016; 31:1085-95.

Mieszala M, Hasegawa M, Guillonneau G, Bauer J, Raghavan R, Frantz C, et al. Microme-chanics of Amorphous Metal/Polymer Hybrid Structures with 3D Cellular Architectures: Size Effects, Buckling Behavior, and Energy Absorption Capability. Small 2016.

Mieszala, M., et al., Orientation-dependent mechanical behaviour of electrodeposited copper with nanoscale twins. Nanoscale, 2016. 8(35): p. 15999-16004.

Mohanty, G., et al., Room temperature stress relaxation in nanocrystalline Ni measured by micropillar compression and miniature tension. Journal of Materials Research, 2016. 31(8): p. 1085-1095.

2015

Mohanty G, Wheeler JM, Raghavan R, Wehrs J, Hasegawa M, Mischler S, et al. Elevated temperature, strain rate jump microcompression of nanocrystalline nickel. Philosophical Magazine 2015;95:1878-95.

2018

Schroer, A., J.M. Wheeler, and R. Schwaiger, Deformation behavior and energy absorption capability of polymer and ceramic-polymer composite microlattices under cyclic loading. Journal of Materials Research, 2018. 33(3): p. 274-289.

2017

Mieszala, M., et al., Erosion mechanisms during abrasive waterjet machining: Model microstructures and single particle experiments. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2017. 247: p. 92-102.

2016

Best, J.P., et al., Small-scale fracture toughness of ceramic thin films: the effects of specimen geometry, ion beam notching and high temperature on chromium nitride toughness evaluation. Philosophical Magazine, 2016. 96(32-34): p. 3552-3569.

Chen, M., et al., High-Temperature In situ Deformation of GaAs Micro-pillars: Lithography Versus FIB Machining. JOM, 2016. 68(11): p. 2761-2767.

2015

Mohanty G, Wheeler JM, Raghavan R, Wehrs J, Hasegawa M, Mischler S, et al. Elevated temperature, strain rate jump microcompression of nanocrystalline nickel. Philosophical Magazine 2015;95:1878-95.

Wehrs J, Mohanty G, Guillonneau G, Taylor AA, Maeder X, Frey D, et al. Comparison of In Situ Micromechanical Strain-Rate Sensitivity Measurement Techniques. JOM 2015; 67:1684-93.

2018

Best JP, Guillonneau G, Grop S, Taylor AA, Frey D, Longchamp Q, et al. High temperature impact testing of a thin hard coating using a novel high-frequency in situ micromechanical device. Surface and Coatings Technology 2018; 178-186.

Best, J.P., et al., High temperature impact testing of a thin hard coating using a novel high-frequency in situ micromechanical device. Surface and Coatings Technology, 2018. 333: p. 178-186.

Best, J.P., et al., Ni-nanocluster composites for enhanced impact resistance of multilayered arc-PVD ceramic coatings. Surface and Coatings Technology, 2018.

Choleridis, A., et al., Experimental study of wear-induced delamination for DLC coated automotive components. Surface and Coatings Technology, 2018. 352: p. 549-560.

Fanicchia, F., et al., Residual stress and adhesion of thermal spray coatings: Microscopic view by solidification and crystallisation analysis in the epitaxial CoNiCrAlY single splat. Materials & Design, 2018. 153: p. 36-46.

Major, L., et al., Ex situ and in situ nanoscale wear mechanisms characterization of Zr/ZrxN tribological coatings. Wear, 2018. 404: p. 82-91.

2017

Feilden, E., et al., Micromechanical strength of individual Al2O3 platelets. Scripta Materialia, 2017. 131: p. 55-58.

2014

Wheeler J, Raghavan R, Chawla V, Morstein M, Michler J. Deformation of hard coatings at elevated temperatures. Surface and Coatings Technology 2014;254:382-7.

2013

Liu S, Wheeler J, Howie P, Zeng X, Michler J, Clegg W. Measuring the fracture resistance of hard coatings. Applied Physics Letters 2013;102:171907.